Seoul was pushed out of the top 10 in the 2014 Global Cities Index, which was released by U.S.-based consultancy A.T. Kearney on Monday. It has released the index once every two years since 2008.
Seoul ranked 12th out of 84 major cities around the world, four places down from the previous index in 2012. Meanwhile, Beijing climbed into the top 10 for the first time this year as it placed eighth.
In the first survey, Seoul came ninth. It was 10th in 2010 and 8th in 2012 before suffering a slide down the rankings. It now ranks a lowly fifth in Asia after Tokyo, Hong Kong, Beijing and Singapore.
The top seven places remained unchanged from two years ago, in the order of New York, London, Paris, Tokyo, Hong Kong, Los Angeles and Chicago.